Hardy pines

Pine trees have excellent adaptations for winter. Their needs are thin with a small surface area and covered with a waxy substance called cutin. This prevents water from evaporating in summer and prevents freezing in winter.

It is also interesting to note that the volatile organic compounds that escape these needles are converted to aerosols when coming in contact with oxygen. These aerosols help form clouds which help hinder direct sunlight reaching the planet to maintain the heat balance.

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